The region is located in the arctic zone of West-Siberian plain, in the center of Extreme North of Russia.
The population of Yamalo-Nenets region is about 542,000 (2012), land area – 769,250 sq. km.
Yamalo-Nenets region history
Yamalo-Nenets autonomous region was formed as a part of Ural oblast on December, 10, 1930. Later, it was a part of Ob-Irtysh and Omsk regions, on August 14, 1944, it became a part of Tyumen region.
In 1977, the region received the status of autonomous okrug (region), on October 18, 1991, the declaration on sovereignty of Yamalo-Nenets Republic was adopted, since 1992, after signing a Federal treaty, the region became a full-right part of the Russian Federation.
Yamalo-Nenets region territory, climate
The extreme northern spot of the region is located on the latitude of 73 degrees, 800 km from the Northern Polar Circle. About half of the territory of the region is located behind the Polar Circle, a small part of it is located on the eastern side of the Urals. There is also peninsula Yamal located on the territory of the region.
The climate of Yamalo-Nenets region is determined by permafrost, cold Karskoye Sea, numerous bays, rivers, marshlands and lakes. On the whole, long winter (up to 8 months), short summer, strong winds and little snow are typical for the nature of the province.
The average temperature of the year is below zero, in Extreme North it reaches 10 degrees Celsius below zero. Minimal temperature in winter reaches minus 59 degrees C. In summer, in July, the temperature can be up to plus 30 degrees C. Frequent magnetic storms are accompanied by northern lights.
The territory of the region is located mainly in 3 climatic zones: arctic, sub-arctic and northern part of Western-Siberian plain. The arctic climate is characterized by long, cold and severe winter with heavy storms, frosts and frequent snowstorms (the lowest temperature is 70 degrees C below zero), little precipitation, very short summer (50 days), thick mists.
The sub-arctic zone occupies the southern part of Yamal peninsula. The climate is more of continental type here: most precipitation is rain and summer lasts up to 68 days. The climate of the northern part of Western-Siberian plain is of sharp continental type, the average temperature is higher, summer is warm enough and humid (up to 100 days).
The relief of Yamalo-Nenets region is plain, it consists of tundra and forest-tundra with a lot of lakes and marshlands and its mountainous part. The mountains in the west of the province stretch 200 km, their height are up to 1,500 m.
Yamalo-Nenets region resources
Water resources of Yamalo-Nenets region differ in variety and size. They include the Karskoye Sea coast, numerous bays and inlets, rivers, marshlands and underground waters.
The Ob inlet – Karskoye Sea bay – is one of the largest sea bays of the Russian Arctic, it is 44,000 sq. km. There are about 300,000 lakes and 48,000 rivers in the region, the largest rivers are the Ob and its mouth as well as the Nadym, Taz and Pur.
One of the longest rivers in Russia, the Ob River, flows in 2 massive branches within the province. The typical feature of Yamalo-Nenets region are the lakes most of which are of glacial origin. Underground waters are characterized by huge artesian basin of 3 mln. sq. km, they include thermal waters as well.
The region takes one of the leading places in Russia in hydro-carbon resources, especially natural gas and oil. The following deposits are located on the territory of the region: Urengoyskoye, South-Russian, Nakhodkinskoye, Yamburgskoye, Yety-Purovskoye.
About 90% of all natural gas of Russia (23% of world produce) and over 14% of the Russian oil is produced in Yamal. In general, the region produces over 54% power resources of Russia. And besides, most of the natural resources of the region have not yet been prospected.
One of the global long-term projects is prospecting of gas deposits of the peninsula and of the Karskoye Sea. 11 gas- and 15 oil-fields are found here. Potential resources of the shelf are considered 50,5 trillion cubic meters, liquid hydro-carbon – over 5 billion tons.
One of the peculiarities of Yamal is the fact that 2 absolutely different types of management came along: industrial prospecting of lands and traditional activities of indigenous peoples of Extreme North.
The largest in the world livestock of caribou (600,000) is herded in the region, in the Ob basin one third of all world resources of freshwater fish of the salmon species is fished out.
One tenth of the whole territory of the region (about 8 mln. hectares) is the territory of nature conservation.