Monthly Archives: Январь 2017

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Yamalo-Nenets autonomous okrug (region) (also spelled Yamalo-Nenetsky, Yamalo-Nenetsia, Yamalia) is a part of Ural federal district of the Russian Federation. The city of Salekhard is the administrative center of the region.


The region is located in the arctic zone of West-Siberian plain, in the center of Extreme North of Russia.

The population of Yamalo-Nenets region is about 542,000 (2012), land area – 769,250 sq. km.

Yamalo-Nenets region history

Yamalo-Nenets autonomous region was formed as a part of Ural oblast on December, 10, 1930. Later, it was a part of Ob-Irtysh and Omsk regions, on August 14, 1944, it became a part of Tyumen region.

In 1977, the region received the status of autonomous okrug (region), on October 18, 1991, the declaration on sovereignty of Yamalo-Nenets Republic was adopted, since 1992, after signing a Federal treaty, the region became a full-right part of the Russian Federation.

Yamalo-Nenets region territory, climate

The extreme northern spot of the region is located on the latitude of 73 degrees, 800 km from the Northern Polar Circle. About half of the territory of the region is located behind the Polar Circle, a small part of it is located on the eastern side of the Urals. There is also peninsula Yamal located on the territory of the region.

The climate of Yamalo-Nenets region is determined by permafrost, cold Karskoye Sea, numerous bays, rivers, marshlands and lakes. On the whole, long winter (up to 8 months), short summer, strong winds and little snow are typical for the nature of the province.

The average temperature of the year is below zero, in Extreme North it reaches 10 degrees Celsius below zero. Minimal temperature in winter reaches minus 59 degrees C. In summer, in July, the temperature can be up to plus 30 degrees C. Frequent magnetic storms are accompanied by northern lights.

The territory of the region is located mainly in 3 climatic zones: arctic, sub-arctic and northern part of Western-Siberian plain. The arctic climate is characterized by long, cold and severe winter with heavy storms, frosts and frequent snowstorms (the lowest temperature is 70 degrees C below zero), little precipitation, very short summer (50 days), thick mists.

The sub-arctic zone occupies the southern part of Yamal peninsula. The climate is more of continental type here: most precipitation is rain and summer lasts up to 68 days. The climate of the northern part of Western-Siberian plain is of sharp continental type, the average temperature is higher, summer is warm enough and humid (up to 100 days).

The relief of Yamalo-Nenets region is plain, it consists of tundra and forest-tundra with a lot of lakes and marshlands and its mountainous part. The mountains in the west of the province stretch 200 km, their height are up to 1,500 m.

Yamalo-Nenets region resources

Water resources of Yamalo-Nenets region differ in variety and size. They include the Karskoye Sea coast, numerous bays and inlets, rivers, marshlands and underground waters.

The Ob inlet – Karskoye Sea bay – is one of the largest sea bays of the Russian Arctic, it is 44,000 sq. km. There are about 300,000 lakes and 48,000 rivers in the region, the largest rivers are the Ob and its mouth as well as the Nadym, Taz and Pur.

One of the longest rivers in Russia, the Ob River, flows in 2 massive branches within the province. The typical feature of Yamalo-Nenets region are the lakes most of which are of glacial origin. Underground waters are characterized by huge artesian basin of 3 mln. sq. km, they include thermal waters as well.

The region takes one of the leading places in Russia in hydro-carbon resources, especially natural gas and oil. The following deposits are located on the territory of the region: Urengoyskoye, South-Russian, Nakhodkinskoye, Yamburgskoye, Yety-Purovskoye.

About 90% of all natural gas of Russia (23% of world produce) and over 14% of the Russian oil is produced in Yamal. In general, the region produces over 54% power resources of Russia. And besides, most of the natural resources of the region have not yet been prospected.

One of the global long-term projects is prospecting of gas deposits of the peninsula and of the Karskoye Sea. 11 gas- and 15 oil-fields are found here. Potential resources of the shelf are considered 50,5 trillion cubic meters, liquid hydro-carbon – over 5 billion tons.

One of the peculiarities of Yamal is the fact that 2 absolutely different types of management came along: industrial prospecting of lands and traditional activities of indigenous peoples of Extreme North.

The largest in the world livestock of caribou (600,000) is herded in the region, in the Ob basin one third of all world resources of freshwater fish of the salmon species is fished out.

One tenth of the whole territory of the region (about 8 mln. hectares) is the territory of nature conservation.

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The first Siberian city founded in 1586, nowdays Tyumen is renowend as the capital of vast Tyumen region, which has Russia’s biggest oil and gas reserves. The city’s population is 700 000 people and it continues to increase. According to the RBC Holding Tyumen is one of ten the most fast-growing cities of Russia.


In 2015, the city of Tyumen was recognized for the second time running as the best Russian city for quality of life by the Government’s Financial University.
Ranking first of thirty-eight Russian cities, Tyumen has high standard of living, great quality of medical care, and prime access to good education. It is also among the best Russian cities concerning housing quality and infrastructure. Find more information about Tyumen in rankings here.

Tyumen is the cultural, business, educational and administrative center of the Tyumen region. The median age of the Tyumen’s population is 36: children (0 to 14 years old) make up 17,9% of the total population.

Featuring a fascinating history, which dates back to Tatars’ conquests, Tyumen still remains a relatively undiscovered gem for visitors, with its lively cultural scene and relaxed, friendly atmosphere.

Don’t be scared of severe Siberian weather; Tyumen is not the permafrost. Click here to learn more about Tyumen climate.

Tyumen is a very space-efficient city with good logistics, in part because of Trans-Siberian Railway that runs directly through it. The city airport offers dozens of flights a day to Moscow, St. Petersburg and other destinations; a flight to Moscow only takes 2h20m, and the airport is a mere 10 minute taxi ride from the city center.

Take a stroll around Tyumen’ center and make sure it has everything a city of this scale needs!

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Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous Okrug – Ugra is a subject of the Russian Federation. Its administrative centre is the city of Khanty-Mansiysk. The population is 1536,9 thousand people. Total area is 534,8 thousand

The Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous Okrug was established by the resolution of the Russian Central Executive Committee (RCEC) of 10 December 1930 “On establishing ethnic associations in the territories of traditional settlement of the indigenous peoples of the North” as a part of the Ural Oblast. Initial name of the territory was the Ostyak-Vogul Ethnic Okrug. On 17 January 1934 it was incorporated into the Ob-Irtysh Oblast with the center in Tyumen. On 7 December 1934 it became part of the Omsk Oblast. On 23 October 1940 the region’s name was changed to the Khanty-Mansiysk Ethnic Okrug. On 14 August 1944 the Okrug was incorporated into the newly established Tyumen Oblast.

The underlying purpose of establishing the Khanty-Mansiysk Okrug was protection of traditional culture and facilitation of social and economic growth of indigenous peoples of the North. It was a jurisdiction embracing the territories of traditional settlement of indigenous peoples of the North – the Khanty and the Mansi emphasizing their special administrative and legal status, however in terms of rights and authority it was little different from any other administrative region.

Significant changes into the Okrug’s status were introduced by the USSR Constitution of 1977 and the Russian Federation Constitution of 1978. It acquired the status of autonomous jurisdiction and a representation in the USSR supreme bodies of state authority with the right of legislative initiative. Under the Russian Law “On the RSFSR Autonomous Okrugs” of 20 November 1980 the Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous Okrug became an element of the administrative and territorial structure of the RF as part of the Tyumen Oblast, and its public authorities were integrated into a unified national local government system. On 9 December1970 by a Decree of the Presidium of the USSR Supreme Soviet the Khanty-Mansiysk Ethnic Okrug was awarded the Order of Lenin for meeting oil fields development targets and increase of production, and on 29 December 1972 – the Order of Peoples’ Friendship for strengthening friendship relations between the Soviet peoples.

By the end of the 20th century as a result of ongoing demographic and socio-economic changes the Okrug ceased to be predominantly mono-ethnic.

At present the Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous Okrug – Ugra is an independent subject of the RF with the population of 1,597.2 thousand of which 32 thousand, or approximately 2% are the representatives of the indigenous peoples of the North: the Khanty, the Mansi, and the Nenets, half of which stick to the traditional way of life.

The region’s territory is comparable in size to the territory of France or Ukraine. There are 105 municipalities in Ugra.

The Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous Okrug is one of the Russian Federation’s leaders in terms of industrial output, power generation, oil and gas production, and equity investment. Over 10 billion tons of oil have been produced from the start of the West-Siberian oil and gas province development. Owing to its explored and proven raw hydrocarbons resources, production capabilities, industrial infrastructure and oil fields commercial viability the Autonomous Okrug will continue to be Russia’s main strategic raw hydrocarbons resource base for the next several decades.

475 oil and gas fields have been discovered in the territory of Ugra.